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European Equality Law Network

European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination

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Comparative analyses

The comparative analyses provide a summary of the state of affairs of non-discrimination and gender equality law in the 28 EU Member States, Albania, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Norway, Serbia and Turkey. The analyses give an overview of the key issues, include the latest and most important legal developments at the national level such as case law and legislative amendments, and illustrate and assess the evolution of non-discrimination and gender equality law.  

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Law reviews

This first issue of the 2020 European Equality Law Review provides an overview of legal and policy developments in the field of gender equality and non-discrimination across Europe from 1 July to 31 December 2019.

It also contains the following in-depth analytical articles. The first article, by Emma Lantschner, associate professor at the Centre for Southeast European Studies, University of Graz, examines the equality bodies’ strategic use of powers to enforce discrimination law, comparing legislation and practice in Belgium, Finland and Sweden. The second article, by the gender equality expert for France, Marie Mercat-Bruns, surveys the state of affairs of the EU collective redress package, focusing on France, Norway and Romania. The third article, by Vera Pavlou, gender equality expert for Cyprus, looks at the legal and practical obstacles faced by domestic workers concerning equality at work. The fourth article is by Kim Baker from the University of Stirling and Olga Juraz from the Open University law school, and looks at online violence against women as an obstacle to gender equality, providing a critical view from a European perspective.

To receive hard copies of the European equality law review and be added to our mailing list to automatically receive future issues, please visit our order page

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Publications

Law reviews

This second issue of the 2019 European Equality Law Review provides an overview of legal and policy developments across Europe and reflects the state of affairs from 1 January to 30 June 2019. It describes the most recent case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights and details the most relevant developments in the same period in legislation, case law and policy in the 36 countries that are covered by the network.

Most recent publication:

European equality law review No. 2 | 2019

Cover image of European equality law review

Published:
November 2019

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Thematic reports

The thematic reports published by the Network provide an in-depth analysis of a variety of themes in the non-discrimination and/or gender equality field. The thematic reports for 2019 are Gender-based positive action in employment in Europe: A comparative analysis of legal and policy approaches in the EU and EEA, author Christopher McCrudden (published); The ongoing evolution of the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union on Directives 2000/43/EC and 2000/78/EC, authors Colm O’Cinneide and Kimberly Liu (published); Racial discrimination in education and EU equality law, authors Lilla Farkas and Dezideriu Gergely (published); Strategic Litigation in the Area of Gender Equality, author Marion Guerrero (published).

Most recent publication:

Strategic litigation in EU gender equality law

Cover image of Strategic litigation in EU gender equality law

Published:
2020

Marion Guerrero

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More thematic reports

Comparative analyses

Most recent publications:

A comparative analysis of non-discrimination law in Europe 2019 A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU non-discrimination law in the EU Member States, Albania, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Norway, Serbia and Turkey

Cover image of A comparative analysis of non-discrimination law in Europe 2019

Published: April 2020

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A comparative analysis of gender equality law in Europe 2019 A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU gender equality law in the EU Member States, Albania, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Norway, Serbia and Turkey

Cover image of A comparative analysis of gender equality law in Europe 2019

Published: May 2020

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More comparative analyses

Links

European Commission, DG Justice and Consumers
Tackling discrimination: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/index_en.htm
Gender equality: https://ec.europa.eu/info/policies/justice-and-fundamental-rights/gender-equality_en

European Court of Justice
http://curia.europa.eu

European Court of Human Rights
http://www.echr.coe.int/Pages/home.aspx?p=home

European Committee of Social Rights
http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/ecsr/ecsrdefault_EN.asp

Equinet - European network of equality bodies
If you consider that you have been a victim or a witness of an act of discrimination we would suggest that you contact the national equality body in your country of residence via the following link: https://equineteurope.org/members-map/ 

More information is available here: https://equineteurope.org/what-are-equality-bodies/european-directory-of-equality-bodies/

FRA - European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
http://fra.europa.eu/en


 

About us

The European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination, established in December 2014, combines two previously existing networks: the European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-discrimination Field and the European Network of Legal Experts in the field of Gender Equality.

The gender equality network has a long history. It started in 1983, focussing on the implementation at national level of the series of directives that have been adopted since 1975 on equal treatment between women and men and on the cases on sex discrimination decided by the Court of Justice. With its experienced experts the network assisted the Commission in its task to monitor the correct implementation of the gender equality acquis communautaire. In 1983, only 6 Member States were participating in this network, in contrast to the 36 countries that are now included in the network.

The network of legal experts on non-discrimination was established in 2004 with the main aim to provide the Commission with independent advice on all the grounds of discrimination covered by Directive 2000/43/EC and Directive 2000/78/EC. The network was a follow-up to three separate networks, one of which dealt with racial or ethnic origin and religion or belief, one with disability and one with sexual orientation.

After a period of increasingly closer cooperation during the years 2012 - 2014 the gender equality and the non-discrimination networks merged into the current network covering all discrimination grounds in the EU Treaties.

The network ensures a regular overview of state of affairs regarding the transposition of EU equality and non-discrimination law on a country by country basis in the annual country reports and comparative analyses, whereas more recent reporting can be found in the legal developments section of the website and the key developments section of the bi-annual European Equality Law Review. Topical issues are addressed in article in the Equality Law Review and thematic reports that are published on the website and presented and discussed during the annual legal seminar.

The overall operation of the network is governed by Human European Consultancy, the School of Law of Utrecht University and the Migration Policy Group.

General coordination - Human European Consultancy

Position Name Email
General Coordinator Marcel Zwamborn
Project manager for non-discrimination Ivette Groenendijk
Project manager for gender equality Yvonne van Leeuwen-Lohde
Project management assistant Rebecca van Midden

Coordination gender equality - Utrecht University

Position Name Email
Specialist coordinator gender equality Linda Senden
Content coordinator for gender equality law Alexandra Timmer
Research editor gender equality law Franka van Hoof
Research editor gender equality law Birte Böök

Coordination non-discrimination - Migration Policy Group

Position Name Email
Specialist coordinator non-discrimination law Isabelle Chopin
Research editor non-discrimination law Catharina Germaine

Executive committee of senior experts

Position Name Email
Racial or ethnic origin Lilla Farkas
Age Elaine Dewhurst
Religion or belief Isabelle Rorive
Gender equality law Susanne Burri
Sexual orientation Peter Dunne
Disability Lisa Waddington
EU and human rights law Christopher McCrudden
Social security Frans Pennings
EU law and expertise on sex, gender identity and gender expression in relation to trans and intersex people Christa Tobler

 

Legal developments

Higher roof for payments during maternity/paternity leave

New Danish Act requires individuals to shake hands with a Danish official to obtain citizenship

The independent mechanism for the implementation of the CRPD delivers two conflicting decisions on complaints for disability discrimination in education

Publication date: 21 December 2018. Topics

Rejection of applicant wearing a headscarf

Publication date: 21 December 2018. Topics

Government proposal to reform the article of the Spanish Constitution, regarding the rights of persons with disabilities

Publication date: 21 December 2018. Topics

Project of a general reform of antidiscrimination legislation in Spain and the creation of an independent “Authority for equal treatment and non-discrimination”

Equal pay certification

Publication date: 21 December 2018. Topics

The ban on dismissal on grounds of marriage does not apply to male workers.

The judgment of the National Court of 19 November 2018 annulled the statutes of a sex workers’ union arguing that prostitution cannot be considered a job and that, therefore, whoever exercises it cannot rely on the freedom of association to create a union

Publication date: 21 December 2018. Topics

Positive Discrimination

Publication date: 21 December 2018. Topics

Denial of reasonable accommodation in nursery school for a pupil with Down's Syndrome

Publication date: 5 December 2018. Topics

Law No. 60/2018 of 21 August 2018 for the promotion of equal pay of men and women

Publication date: 13 November 2018. Topics

Code of Practice for the prevention of sexual harassment and harassment in employment & Code of Practice for combating of sexual harassment and harassment in employment in public sector

Publication date: 13 November 2018. Topics

Improving the coordination between the right to leave for the care of disabled people and the right to compulsory maternity leave

Publication date: 13 November 2018. Topics

Police charged the harasser EUR 96

Publication date: 13 November 2018. Topics

Draft law amending the Gender Equality Act and related legal acts

Publication date: 13 November 2018. Topics

Legality of the decision to remove alternative meals in school on the ground of secularity of the public service

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

Politicians declare intention to close down NCCD

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

Risk of shutting down of NGOs providing services to vulnerable groups due to restrictive anti-money laundering provisions

Court finds that Courts in the Republic of Cyprus have no jurisdiction to try disputes between members of the Turkish Community

Law of 10 August 2018 opens the gender marker change process by a declaration of intimate and stable conviction

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

Gender quotas on company boards

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

Publication of manuals for politicians, judges, and local and regional gender equality commissions in the field of gender mainstreaming and promotion of gender equality

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

The new law on higher education provides that female and male scientists are subjected to general provisions on the differentiation of retirement age, meaning that women shall retire at the age of 60, while men retire at the age of 65.

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

Preparation of the new National Gender Equality Policy

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

Different levels of benefit for maternity and adoption leave

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

Home

Welcome!

In order to effectively promote equality and tackle discrimination in the European Union it is important to understand the effects of the EU's equal treatment and non-discrimination legislation.

The European Commission therefore set up the former network of legal experts in gender equality and the network on non-discrimination to support its work by providing independent information and advice on relevant developments in the Member States. The two networks were merged in December 2014 and are now jointly managed by Human European Consultancy, the Migration Policy Group (MPG) and Utrecht University (UU) on behalf of the European Commission.

A primary task of the European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination is to provide reliable, expert information to enable the Commission to fulfil their role as guardian of the treaties. The disclosure and gathering of information on gender equality and non-discrimination legislation, case law and developments at national level, that is often not easily accessible due to the specificities of national legal systems, language barriers and difficulties in finding relevant information, is therefore one of the key goals of the new network.

The dissemination of general information about the acquis (communautaire and national), the latest developments at the EU level and in the countries involved in the network, remains a vital issue both for the further implementation of gender equality and non-discrimination law and its further development. Only upon the basis of the disclosure of gender equality and non-discrimination problems persisting in the Member States and other countries involved in the network, will it be possible to develop sound policies and legal rules for remedying these.

On this website the network publishes information on developments in gender equality and non-discrimination law at the Member State and European level. More information can be found via our legal developments page and the individual country pages.

Go to the website of Utrecht University
Go to the website of the Migration Policy Group

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