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European Equality Law Network

European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination

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Thematic reports

 

Rikki Holtmaat (March 2006)

Publication date: 2 March 2006. Topics

Rikki Holtmaat (mars 2006)

Publication date: 2 March 2006. Topics

Rikki Holtmaat (März 2006)

Publication date: 2 March 2006. Topics

Christa Tobler (June 2005)

Publication date: 14 June 2005. Topics

Christa Tobler (Juni 2005)

Publication date: 14 June 2005. Topics

Colm O'Cinneide (April 2005)

Publication date: 5 April 2005. Topics

Colm O'Cinneide (avril 2005)

Publication date: 5 April 2005. Topics

Olivier De Schutter (February 2005)

Publication date: 8 February 2005. Topics

Olivier De Schutter (février 2005)

Publication date: 8 February 2005. Topics

Olivier De Schutter (Februar 2005)

Publication date: 8 February 2005. Topics

Comparative analyses

The comparative analyses provide a summary of the state of affairs of non-discrimination and gender equality law in the 28 EU Member States, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Norway, Serbia and Turkey. The analyses give an overview of the key issues, include the latest and most important legal developments at the national level such as case law and legislative amendments, and illustrate and assess the evolution of non-discrimination and gender equality law.  

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Law reviews

This second issue of the 2019 European Equality Law Review provides an overview of legal and policy developments across Europe and reflects the state of affairs from 1 January to 30 June 2019.

This Law Review opens with four in-depth analytical articles. The first article, authored by Sophia Ayada from the European University Institute Florence, investigates the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union concerning the access of female workers to the labour market. The second article, authored by Panagiota Petroglou, Greek gender equality expert of the European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination, examines the concepts of sexual harassment, and harassment at work related to sex. The article also evaluates relevant EU law limits and potential for future EU legislative action. The third article is authored by Judy Walsh, the Irish non-discrimination expert of the network, and explores the issue of primacy of national law over EU law with regard to a controversial provision of the Irish Equal Status Act. The fourth article is authored by Julie Ringelheim from the University of Louvain and examines the implementation of the shift of the burden of proof in non-discrimination cases, focusing on Belgium, France and Ireland.

To receive hard copies of the European equality law review and be added to our mailing list to automatically receive future issues, please visit our order page

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Publications

Law reviews

This second issue of the 2019 European Equality Law Review provides an overview of legal and policy developments across Europe and reflects the state of affairs from 1 January to 30 June 2019. It describes the most recent case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights and details the most relevant developments in the same period in legislation, case law and policy in the 36 countries that are covered by the network.

Most recent publication:

European equality law review No. 2 | 2019

Cover image of European equality law review

Published:
November 2019

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More European equality law reviews

Thematic reports

The thematic reports published by the Network provide an in-depth analysis of a variety of themes in the non-discrimination and/or gender equality field. The thematic reports for 2019 are: Gender-based positive action in employment in Europe: A comparative analysis of legal and policy approaches in the EU and EEA, author Christopher McCrudden (published); The ongoing evolution of the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union on Directives 2000/43/EC and 2000/78/EC, authors Colm O’Cinneide and Kimberly Liu (published); Strategic Litigation in the Area of Gender Equality, author Marion Guerrero (publication pending); Racial discrimination in education and EU equality law, authors Lilla Farkas and Dezideriu Gergely (publication pending) .

Most recent publication:

The ongoing evolution of the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union on Directives 2000/43/EC and 2000/78/EC

Cover image of The ongoing evolution of the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union on Directives 2000/43/EC and 2000/78/EC

Published:
2019

Kimberly Liu and Colm O’Cinneide

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More thematic reports

Comparative analyses

The comparative analyses provide a general overview of the implementation of EU gender equality and non-discrimination law in the 28 EU Member States, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Norway, Serbia and Turkey.

Most recent publications:

A comparative analysis of gender equality law in Europe 2018 A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU gender equality law in the EU Member States, the Republic of North Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey

Cover image of A comparative analysis of gender equality law in Europe 2018

Published: February 2019

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A comparative analysis of non-discrimination law in Europe 2018 A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU non-discrimination law in the 28 EU Member States, the Republic of North Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey

Cover image of A comparative analysis of non-discrimination law in Europe 2018

Published: January 2019

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More comparative analyses

Links

European Commission, DG Justice and Consumers
Tackling discrimination: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/index_en.htm
Gender equality: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/index_en.htm

European Court of Justice
http://curia.europa.eu

European Court of Human Rights
http://www.echr.coe.int/Pages/home.aspx?p=home

European Committee of Social Rights
http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/ecsr/ecsrdefault_EN.asp

Equinet - European network of equality bodies
If you consider that you have been a victim or a witness of an act of discrimination we would suggest that you contact the national equality body in your country of residence via the following link: http://www.equineteurope.org/-Equinet-Members-

More information is available here: http://equineteurope.org/-Are-you-a-victim-of-discrimination-

FRA - European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
http://fra.europa.eu/en


 

About us

The European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination, established in December 2014, combines two previously existing networks: the European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-discrimination Field and the European Network of Legal Experts in the field of Gender Equality.

The gender equality network has a long history. It started in 1983, focussing on the implementation at national level of the series of directives that have been adopted since 1975 on equal treatment between women and men and on the cases on sex discrimination decided by the Court of Justice. With its experienced experts the network assisted the Commission in its task to monitor the correct implementation of the gender equality acquis communautaire. In 1983, only 6 Member States were participating in this network, in contrast to the 36 countries that are now included in the network.

The network of legal experts on non-discrimination was established in 2004 with the main aim to provide the Commission with independent advice on all the grounds of discrimination covered by Directive 2000/43/EC and Directive 2000/78/EC. The network was a follow-up to three separate networks, one of which dealt with racial or ethnic origin and religion or belief, one with disability and one with sexual orientation.

After a period of increasingly closer cooperation during the years 2012 - 2014 the gender equality and the non-discrimination networks merged into the current network covering all discrimination grounds in the EU Treaties.

The network ensures a regular overview of state of affairs regarding the transposition of EU equality and non-discrimination law on a country by country basis in the annual country reports and comparative analyses, whereas more recent reporting can be found in the legal developments section of the website and the key developments section of the bi-annual European Equality Law Review. Topical issues are addressed in article in the Equality Law Review and thematic reports that are published on the website and presented and discussed during the annual legal seminar.

The overall operation of the network is governed by Human European Consultancy, the School of Law of Utrecht University and the Migration Policy Group.

General coordination - Human European Consultancy

Position Name Email
General Coordinator Marcel Zwamborn
Project management assistant Ivette Groenendijk
Project management assistant Yvonne van Leeuwen-Lohde

Coordination gender equality - Utrecht University

Position Name Email
Specialist coordinator gender equality Linda Senden
Content coordinator for gender equality law Alexandra Timmer
Research editor gender equality law Franka van Hoof
Research editor gender equality law Raphaele Xenidis

Coordination non-discrimination - Migration Policy Group

Position Name Email
Specialist coordinator non-discrimination law Isabelle Chopin
Research editor non-discrimination law Catharina Germaine

Executive committee of senior experts

Position Name Email
Racial or ethnic origin Lilla Farkas
Age Elaine Dewhurst
Religion or belief Isabelle Rorive
Gender equality law Susanne Burri
Sexual orientation Peter Dunne
Disability Lisa Waddington
EU and human rights law Christopher McCrudden
Social security Frans Pennings
EU law and expertise on sex, gender identity and gender expression in relation to trans and intersex people Christa Tobler

 

Legal developments

Law of 10 August 2018 opens the gender marker change process by a declaration of intimate and stable conviction

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

Gender quotas on company boards

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

Publication of manuals for politicians, judges, and local and regional gender equality commissions in the field of gender mainstreaming and promotion of gender equality

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

The new law on higher education provides that female and male scientists are subjected to general provisions on the differentiation of retirement age, meaning that women shall retire at the age of 60, while men retire at the age of 65.

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

Preparation of the new National Gender Equality Policy

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

Different levels of benefit for maternity and adoption leave

Publication date: 8 November 2018. Topics

Law 6/2018, of 3 July 2018 (Final Disposition 38) has extended the paternity leave from four weeks to five weeks and has allowed the possibility to take the paternity leave in two parts.

Publication date: 24 October 2018. Topics

New bills to prevent and dismantle ghettos and parallel societies in Denmark

Royal Decree 950/2018, of 27 July 2018, has applied the judgment of the CJEU of 9 November 2017, C-98/15 (Espadas Recio Case) and has, accordingly, modified the social security legislation so part-time workers have the right to the unemployment benefit taking into consideration the days that they have contributed to the social security system, and not only the days that they have effectively worked.

Publication date: 24 October 2018. Topics

Fixed-term contracts for the young unemployed

Publication date: 9 October 2018. Topics

Indirect discrimination / Obligations of public prosecutor offices when assessing discriminatory impact of municipal binding regulations

Publication date: 9 October 2018. Topics

On 30 August, the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination published Concluding Observations on the combined report by Latvia. The observations pay special attention to the collection of statistics, NHRI, anti-discrimination legislation and its enforcement, hate crimes and hate speech, access to justice, non-citizens and the situation of Roma

2017 Annual Report of the Ombudsperson for Gender Equality discussed and approved in the Croatian Parliament

Publication date: 28 September 2018. Topics

Unclear impact of the changes on equal treatment of men and women in social security

Publication date: 28 September 2018. Topics

Liechtenstein’s Administrative Court applied to the Constitutional Court for annulment of a legal provision in the granting of a residence permit to the de facto civil partner on the grounds that this provision violates the principle of constitutional equality and is not compatible with Article 8 ECHR in conjunction with the prohibition of discrimination under Article 14 ECHR

Adoption of legislation on equal treatment in the labour market irrespective of race, ethnic origin, religion/belief, disability, diminished work ability, age, sexual orientation and gender identity, biological gender characteristics and gender expression

Direct discrimination in recruitment

Publication date: 17 September 2018. Topics

Non-conformity of the decision of the plenary assembly of the Court of Cassation in relation to the dismissal of a child care director for wearing the Islamic veil to the International Covenant on Civil and political right

Publication date: 10 September 2018. Topics

New housing policy for Roma to ensure non-discrimination and the enjoyment of their cultural rights

Discriminatory treatment against a person by reason of his/ her origin on behalf of the Greek Manpower Organisation for Employment

Did termination of a recruitment process due to the female applicant’s refusal, for religious reasons, to shake hands with the male manager during a job interview constitute indirect discrimination?

The ‘Family 500 plus program’ discourages women from engaging in work and disadvantages single parents, disproportionately affecting women

Publication date: 10 September 2018. Topics

The City Council in Nysa adopted a resolution which provided for a privilege in receiving so-called ‘care vouchers’, among others to children from married families and families in which only one parent works

Complaint on preventing a mother who was breastfeeding in public. Amended Law Article 99B of the Criminal Code.

Publication date: 8 August 2018. Topics

The Non-Discrimination and Equality Tribunal considered it discrimination when a credit company refused to grant credit based on the combined effect of applicant’s gender, language, age and place of residence

Burkini ban in swimming pools is unlawful according to two first instance judgments of the Tribunal of Gent

Is the obligation to disclose the cause of disability (including mental) when applying for the job justifiable?

Publication date: 8 August 2018. Topics

The administration of an aqua park in Wrocław decided that during one day in a week the sauna area will be open to women only

Publication date: 8 August 2018. Topics

Different pricing for women and men may be regarded as violation of the principle of equality in the light of directive 2003/114

Publication date: 8 August 2018. Topics

Collaboration, exchange of information and good practices between the National Labour Inspectorate and the National Equality Adviser

Publication date: 8 August 2018. Topics

Various legislative proposals regarding gender equality are currently being debated in parliament

Publication date: 8 August 2018. Topics

Balance between the prohibition of discrimination and freedom of thought, beliefs and views as well as economic freedom and freedom of transactions

The new minister for labour and social affairs plans to introduce a “family package”

Publication date: 24 July 2018. Topics

Act No. 310/2017 Coll., amending Act No. 187/2006 Coll., on healthcare insurance entered into force on 1 June 2018.

Publication date: 24 July 2018. Topics

Equal pay

Publication date: 24 July 2018. Topics

Does the use of a requirement that, for a person to be eligible for inclusion in a job pool or access to a temporary job, he or she must have a separate main employment, constitute direct or indirect discrimination when applied to a person with a sickness benefit of 50% related to a disability?

Inadequate accessibility even outside of working life is a form of discrimination in Sweden. LW was refused access to a bus due to his wheelchair. The Equality Ombudsman did not take the case to court so LW turned to an NGO. The NGO took the case to court and won. This is one of the first cases where an NGO took on the full legal risks of enforcing the law

The state of affairs regarding segregation in the Hungarian system of public education

Publication date: 24 July 2018. Topics

Home

Welcome!

In order to effectively promote equality and tackle discrimination in the European Union it is important to understand the effects of the EU's equal treatment and non-discrimination legislation.

The European Commission therefore set up the former network of legal experts in gender equality and the network on non-discrimination to support its work by providing independent information and advice on relevant developments in the Member States. The two networks were merged in December 2014 and are now jointly managed by Human European Consultancy, the Migration Policy Group (MPG) and Utrecht University (UU) on behalf of the European Commission.

A primary task of the European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination is to provide reliable, expert information to enable the Commission to fulfil their role as guardian of the treaties. The disclosure and gathering of information on gender equality and non-discrimination legislation, case law and developments at national level, that is often not easily accessible due to the specificities of national legal systems, language barriers and difficulties in finding relevant information, is therefore one of the key goals of the new network.

The dissemination of general information about the acquis (communautaire and national), the latest developments at the EU level and in the countries involved in the network, remains a vital issue both for the further implementation of gender equality and non-discrimination law and its further development. Only upon the basis of the disclosure of gender equality and non-discrimination problems persisting in the Member States and other countries involved in the network, will it be possible to develop sound policies and legal rules for remedying these.

On this website the network publishes information on developments in gender equality and non-discrimination law at the Member State and European level. More information can be found via our legal developments page and the individual country pages.

Go to the website of Utrecht University
Go to the website of the Migration Policy Group

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