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European Equality Law Network

European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination

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Thematic reports

 

 Aileen McColgan sous la supervision du Migration Policy Group (septembre 2013)

Publication date: 3 September 2013. Topics

Aileen McColgan, Beratung: Migration Policy Group (September 2013)

Publication date: 3 September 2013. Topics

Julie Ringelheim and Nicolas Bernard (February 2013)

Publication date: 5 February 2013. Topics

Julie Ringelheim et Nicolas Bernard (février 2013)

Publication date: 5 February 2013. Topics

Annick Masselot, Eugenia Caracciolo Di Torella and Susanne Burri (November 2012)

Publication date: 2 November 2012. Topics

Annick Masselot, Eugenia Caracciolo Di Torella et Susanne Burri (novembre 2012)

Publication date: 2 November 2012. Topics

Annick Masselot, Eugenia Caracciolo Di Torella und Susanne Burri (November 2012)

Publication date: 2 November 2012. Topics

Colm O‘Cinneide, supervised by Christa Tobler (November 2012)

Publication date: 1 November 2012. Topics

Nicola Countouris and Mark Freedland (September 2012)

Publication date: 4 September 2012. Topics

Nicola Countouris et Mark Freedland (septembre 2012)

Publication date: 4 September 2012. Topics

Nicola Countouris und Mark Freedland (September 2012)

Publication date: 4 September 2012. Topics

Ann Numhauser-Henning and Sylvaine Laulom (November 2011)

Publication date: 11 November 2011. Topics

Susanne Burri and Hanneke van Eijken (Update August 2011)

Publication date: 1 August 2011. Topics

Declan O'Dempsey and Anna Beale, supervised by Mark Freedland (July 2011)

Publication date: 13 July 2011. Topics

Gender Quotas and Other Positive Action (December June 2011)

Publication date: 14 June 2011. Topics

Silvan Agius and Christa Tobler, supervised by Migration Policy Group (June 2011)

Publication date: 7 June 2011. Topics

Olivier de Schutter (May 2011)

Publication date: 10 May 2011. Topics

Titia Loenen and Susanne Burri (December 2010)

Publication date: 8 December 2010. Topics

Simonetta Renga, Dora Molnar-Hidassy and Genoveva Tisheva (December 2010)

Publication date: 1 December 2010. Topics

Petra Foubert, Susanne Burri and Ann Numhauser-Henning (October 2010)

Publication date: 1 October 2010. Topics

Comparative analyses

The comparative analyses provide a summary of the state of affairs of non-discrimination and gender equality law in the 27 EU Member States, Albania, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Turkey and United Kingdom. The analyses give an overview of the key issues, include the latest and most important legal developments at the national level such as case law and legislative amendments, and illustrate and assess the evolution of non-discrimination and gender equality law.  

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Law reviews

This second issue of the 2021 European Equality Law Review provides an overview of legal and policy developments in the field of gender equality and non-discrimination across Europe from 1 January to 30 June 2021.

This issue opens with three in-depth articles. The first article, by Sara Benedí Lahuerta from University College Dublin, is a comparative analysis of best practices and challenges in respect of pay transparency measures in Belgium, Denmark and Iceland. The second article, by Daniela Mihailova of the Equal Opportunities Initiative Association (Bulgaria), explores the situation of Roma and Traveller communities in Bulgaria, Ireland and Slovakia in relation to healthcare. The final article, by Karolina Kędziora, President of the Polish Society of Anti-Discrimination Law, and independent expert Maciej Kułak, is a comparative analysis of the evaluations of national non-discrimination law that have been commissioned and/or undertaken by national authorities in recent years in Austria, Belgium, Poland and Sweden.

To receive hard copies of the European equality law review and be added to our mailing list to automatically receive future issues, please visit our order page

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Publications

Law reviews

This second issue of the 2021 European Equality Law Review provides an overview of legal and policy developments in the field of gender equality and non-discrimination across Europe from 1 January to 30 June 2021.

Most recent publication:

European equality law review No. 2 | 2021

Cover image of European equality law review

Published:
November 2021

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More European equality law reviews

Thematic reports

The thematic reports published by the Network provide an in-depth analysis of a variety of themes in the non-discrimination and/or gender equality field. The thematic reports for 2021 are: Gender equality in goods and services, author Eugenia Caracciolo di Torella, Criminalisation of gender-based violence against women in European States, including ICT-facilitated violence, authors Sara De Vido and Lorena Sosa; How to improve the enforcement of the Racial Equality and the Employment Equality Directives? Effectively enforcing the right to non-discrimination. Promising practices implementing and going beyond the requirements of the Racial Equality and Employment Equality Directives, authors Romaniţa Iordache and Iustina Ionescu.

Most recent publication:

Directive 2004/113/EC on Gender Equality in Goods and Services – In search of the potential of a forgotten Directive

Cover image of Directive 2004/113/EC on Gender Equality in Goods and Services – In search of the potential of a forgotten Directive

Published:
March 2022

Eugenia Caracciolo di Torella

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More thematic reports

Comparative analyses

Most recent publications:

A comparative analysis of non-discrimination law in Europe 2021

Cover image of A comparative analysis of non-discrimination law in Europe 2021

Published: February 2022

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A comparative analysis of gender equality law in Europe 2021

Cover image of A comparative analysis of gender equality law in Europe 2021

Published: February 2022

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More comparative analyses

Links

European Commission, DG Justice and Consumers
Tackling discrimination: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/index_en.htm
Gender equality: https://ec.europa.eu/info/policies/justice-and-fundamental-rights/gender-equality_en

European Court of Justice
http://curia.europa.eu

European Court of Human Rights
http://www.echr.coe.int/Pages/home.aspx?p=home

European Committee of Social Rights
http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/ecsr/ecsrdefault_EN.asp

Equinet - European network of equality bodies
If you consider that you have been a victim or a witness of an act of discrimination we would suggest that you contact the national equality body in your country of residence via the following link: https://equineteurope.org/members-map/ 

More information is available here: https://equineteurope.org/what-are-equality-bodies/european-directory-of-equality-bodies/

FRA - European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
http://fra.europa.eu/en


 

About us

The European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination, established in December 2014, combines two previously existing networks: the European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-discrimination Field and the European Network of Legal Experts in the field of Gender Equality.

The gender equality network has a long history. It started in 1983, focussing on the implementation at national level of the series of directives that have been adopted since 1975 on equal treatment between women and men and on the cases on sex discrimination decided by the Court of Justice. With its experienced experts the network assisted the Commission in its task to monitor the correct implementation of the gender equality acquis communautaire. In 1983, only 6 Member States were participating in this network, in contrast to the 36 countries that are now included in the network.

The network of legal experts on non-discrimination was established in 2004 with the main aim to provide the Commission with independent advice on all the grounds of discrimination covered by Directive 2000/43/EC and Directive 2000/78/EC. The network was a follow-up to three separate networks, one of which dealt with racial or ethnic origin and religion or belief, one with disability and one with sexual orientation.

After a period of increasingly closer cooperation during the years 2012 - 2014 the gender equality and the non-discrimination networks merged into the current network covering all discrimination grounds in the EU Treaties.

The network ensures a regular overview of state of affairs regarding the transposition of EU equality and non-discrimination law on a country by country basis in the annual country reports and comparative analyses, whereas more recent reporting can be found in the legal developments section of the website and the key developments section of the bi-annual European Equality Law Review. Topical issues are addressed in article in the Equality Law Review and thematic reports that are published on the website and presented and discussed during the annual legal seminar.

The overall operation of the network is governed by Human European Consultancy, the School of Law of Utrecht University and the Migration Policy Group.

General coordination - Human European Consultancy

Position Name Email
General Coordinator Jos Kösters
Project manager  Yvonne van Leeuwen-Lohde
Project management assistant Rebecca van Midden

Coordination gender equality - Utrecht University

Position Name Email
Specialist coordinator gender equality Linda Senden
Content coordinator for gender equality law Alexandra Timmer
Research editor gender equality law Franka van Hoof
Research editor gender equality law Birte Böök

Coordination non-discrimination - Migration Policy Group

Position Name Email
Specialist coordinator non-discrimination law Isabelle Chopin
Research editor non-discrimination law Catharina Germaine

Executive committee of senior experts

Position Name Email
Racial or ethnic origin Lilla Farkas
Age Elaine Dewhurst
Religion or belief Isabelle Rorive
Gender equality law Susanne Burri
Sexual orientation Peter Dunne
Disability Lisa Waddington
EU and human rights law Christopher McCrudden
Social security Frans Pennings
EU law and expertise on sex, gender identity and gender expression in relation to trans and intersex people Christa Tobler

 

Legal developments

Law proposal on ‘Diversity at the top of business’ adopted by the First Chamber (Senate) of Parliament

Publication date: 25 October 2021. Topics

Despite the alarming rise of ‘intimate’ femicides in Greece which has given ground to a heated political and societal debate, there is no political will to introduce femicide as a specific offence or as an aggravating circumstance

Publication date: 25 October 2021. Topics

Compulsory Retirement: justifying age discrimination

Publication date: 20 October 2021. Topics

Discrimination against gay and lesbian foster parents due to the religion and belief of the adoption agency

Discrimination on the ground of age of the conditions of application to the National Magistrates’ School

Publication date: 22 September 2021. Topics

The non-availability of immediate access to forensic services for victims of sexual violence during weekends, as officially acknowledged by the Greek Police for the first time, is in breach of Article 25 of the Istanbul Convention

Publication date: 22 September 2021. Topics

The Court rejected the claim from a Turkish Cypriot that the refusal of the state authorities to permit the sale of her property to a third party amounted to an infringement of the Racial Equality Directive

Mandatory retirement age for judges not age discrimination

Publication date: 15 September 2021. Topics

Whether legislation banning the ‘promotion or portrayal of deviation from [gender]identity aligning with birth at sex, gender reassignment, or homosexuality’ made available to persons under the age of 18 is in line with fundamental EU values, including non-discrimination

Burden of proof of racial profiling in case of police identify controls

Impact of mental psychic disability on the appreciation of the fault of the employee

French Court of Appeals rejects defamation claim against French #metoo launched in good faith for the public interest of women

Direct discrimination in connection with emergency health care leading to inadequate care, resulting in death

This law sets the framework and mandate for establishment of a National Human Rights Institute (NHRI) in Sweden that is fully compliant with the Paris Principles

Publication date: 4 August 2021. Topics

Travel agency refused a woman with a disability to bring her electric scooter on a bus trip to France

Monitoring of discrimination cases concerning public and private sector on behalf of the competent Equality Body

Are gender critical beliefs protected under the Equality Act 2010?

Act 4808/2021 introduces some innovative provisions on family-related leaves

The scope of this Bill is to ensure fulfilment of Malta’s obligations in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the United Nations Principles relating to the Status of National Institutions (the Paris Principles)

Publication date: 28 July 2021. Topics

Equal pay between female and male dominated professions

Publication date: 28 July 2021. Topics

The scope of this Bill is to make provision for the possibility of civil action based on claims alleging discrimination on the basis of disability in respect of the rights protected by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and to provide for further implementation of the said Convention

Publication date: 28 July 2021. Topics

An independent Member of Parliament (MP) tabled a private members’ bill proposing the decriminalisation of abortion, a crime which carries up to three years’ imprisonment in Malta

Avoiding reinforcing gender inequalities in the implementation of the recovery plan

Publication date: 21 July 2021. Topics

Act 4800/2021 on mandatory shared custody for all children in breach of the Istanbul Convention, EU law and international treaties

Act 4808/2021, sanctioning ILO Convention 190 on Violence and Harassment creates inconsistencies with EU law on sexual harassment and harassment related to sex and the other grounds of discrimination at work

On 3 May 2021, the Labour Court of Brussels ruled that the refusal to hire a woman wearing the headscarf constitutes direct discrimination on the ground of religion or belief and indirect discrimination on the ground of gender

The introduction of provisions under which a pharmacist and a pharmaceutical technician may refuse to provide a pharmaceutical service if its performance is potentially endangering to the life or health of the patient or others, may lead to further restrictions on access to contraceptives for women

Decision by the Equality Body on the policy of Eindhoven University of Technology to appoint more women in academic positions

New legislation concerning gender equality

Publication date: 23 June 2021. Topics

Adoption of amendments to the LPD which expands the scope of its application

Home

Welcome!

In order to effectively promote equality and tackle discrimination in the European Union it is important to understand the effects of the EU's equal treatment and non-discrimination legislation.

The European Commission therefore set up the former network of legal experts in gender equality and the network on non-discrimination to support its work by providing independent information and advice on relevant developments in the Member States. The two networks were merged in December 2014 and are now jointly managed by Human European Consultancy, the Migration Policy Group (MPG) and Utrecht University (UU) on behalf of the European Commission.

A primary task of the European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination is to provide reliable, expert information to enable the Commission to fulfil their role as guardian of the treaties. The disclosure and gathering of information on gender equality and non-discrimination legislation, case law and developments at national level, that is often not easily accessible due to the specificities of national legal systems, language barriers and difficulties in finding relevant information, is therefore one of the key goals of the new network.

The dissemination of general information about the acquis (communautaire and national), the latest developments at the EU level and in the countries involved in the network, remains a vital issue both for the further implementation of gender equality and non-discrimination law and its further development. Only upon the basis of the disclosure of gender equality and non-discrimination problems persisting in the Member States and other countries involved in the network, will it be possible to develop sound policies and legal rules for remedying these.

On this website the network publishes information on developments in gender equality and non-discrimination law at the Member State and European level. More information can be found via our legal developments page and the individual country pages.

Go to the website of Human European Consultancy
Go to the website of Utrecht University
Go to the website of the Migration Policy Group

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