Skip to main content

European Equality Law Network

European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination

Privacy statement

Why this statement?

Human European Consultancy collects personal data through this website and uses cookies.    

This privacy statement explains which data are collected, why and how these data are managed, used and protected. 

All data are handled with great care and in conformity with the Dutch General Data Protection Regulation. 

Why does Human European Consultancy collect your personal data, what are these used for and will these be processed and stored?

Human European Consultancy collects and uses personal data provided by visitors of the website. Data that have been provided through this website will only be send to an e-mail address of Human European Consultancy and are processed and stored only for the purpose for which these have been provided. 

Personal data will be used by employees for internal operational processes. It could be essential to enter your personal data into a system that Human European Consultancy uses for its administration. Your personal data will not be entered into a system if it is not essential. 

The systems are protected with a personal login and password. In addition, employees do not have access to every system. They only have access to the systems they need for doing the tasks belonging to their position. 

Your personal data will not be shared with or provided to organizations outside Human European Consultancy, except when it serves the purpose for which your personal data was collected or when the law requires Human European Consultancy to do so. 

Your personal data will not be kept longer than needed, in conformity with Article 5, section 1c of the General Data Protection Regulation. 

Cookies to improve the functioning of the website 

The website uses cookies. These cookies guarantee that the website works properly. 

The website registers in logfiles each visit of a page, together with the IP address of the visitor to detect errors and security of the site. The logfiles are deleted after a week. 

Analytical cookies 

To improve the website Google analytics is used for collecting statistical data. This is done under a third party processing agreement which excludes exchange of data with other Google services. Your IP address and time spent on the website will be saved. However, these data are anonymous. 

How can you view, change and delete your personal data?

 You have the right to view, change or delete your personal data. If you want to make use of this right or if you have any questions regarding your personal data, please contact Human European Consultancy and email to the following email address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Updating this privacy statement

A more comprehensive privacy policy statement is available is Dutch and can be downloaded here.

Human European Consultancy can always update this privacy statement according to new laws, legislation and/or work procedures. This privacy statement was last updated, and is effective as of May 22nd, 2018.

Order publications

Thank you for your interest in ordering our European equality law review!

Ordering information will be available shortly so please check back with us.

Thematic reports

 

Olivier De Schutter (July 2016)

Publication date: 12 October 2016. Topics

Kevät Nousiainen and Christine Chinkin (April 2016)

Publication date: 20 April 2016. Topics

Lisa Waddington and Andrea Broderick with the assistance of Anne Poulos (April 2016)

Publication date: 19 April 2016. Topics

Delia Ferri and Anna Lawson (March 2016)

Publication date: 21 March 2016. Topics

Maria do Rosário Palma Ramalho, Petra Foubert and Susanne Burri (February 2015)

Publication date: 27 February 2015. Topics

Maria do Rosário Palma Ramalho, Petra Foubert et Susanne Burri (février 2015)

Publication date: 27 February 2015. Topics

Maria do Rosário Palma Ramalho, Petra Foubert und Susanne Burri (Februar 2015)

Publication date: 27 February 2015. Topics

Lilla Farkas and Orlagh O'Farrell (December 2014)

Publication date: 2 December 2014. Topics

Lilla Farkas et Orlagh O'Farrell (décembre 2014)

Publication date: 2 December 2014. Topics

Lilla Farkas und Orlagh O'Farrell (Dezember 2014)

Publication date: 2 December 2014. Topics

Dorota Pudzianowska and Krzysztof Smiszek, supervised and edited by Christa Tobler (December 2014)

Publication date: 2 December 2014. Topics

Dorota Pudzianowska et Krzysztof Smiszek (décembre 2014)

Publication date: 2 December 2014. Topics

Susanne Burri and Sacha Prechal 

Publication date: 1 January 2014. Topics

Susanne Burri and Helga Aune (November 2013)

Publication date: 1 November 2013. Topics

Emmanuelle Bribosia and Isabelle Rorive, Supervised by Lisa Waddington (September 2013)

Publication date: 3 September 2013. Topics

Emmanuelle Bribosia et Isabelle Rorive sous la supervision de Lisa Waddington (septembre 2013)

Publication date: 3 September 2013. Topics

Emmanuelle Bribosia und Isabelle Rorive. Beratung: Lisa Waddington (September 2013)

Publication date: 3 September 2013. Topics

Aileen McColgan, supervised by Migration Policy Group (September 2013)

Publication date: 3 September 2013. Topics

Comparative analyses

The comparative analyses provide a summary of the state of affairs of non-discrimination and gender equality law in the 27 EU Member States, Albania, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Turkey and United Kingdom. The analyses give an overview of the key issues, include the latest and most important legal developments at the national level such as case law and legislative amendments, and illustrate and assess the evolution of non-discrimination and gender equality law.  

Wie sind die Unionsvorschriften 2015 im nationalen Recht umgesetzt? 

Publication date: 14 December 2015. Topics

The 28 EU Member States, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey compared

Publication date: 1 January 2015. Topics

Gender Equality Law in 33 European Countries: How are EU rules transposed into national law?

Publication date: 1 February 2014. Topics

The 28 EU Member States, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey compared

Publication date: 1 October 2013. Topics

The 27 EU Member States, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey compared

Publication date: 1 October 2012. Topics

Law reviews

This second issue of the 2021 European Equality Law Review provides an overview of legal and policy developments in the field of gender equality and non-discrimination across Europe from 1 January to 30 June 2021.

This issue opens with three in-depth articles. The first article, by Sara Benedí Lahuerta from University College Dublin, is a comparative analysis of best practices and challenges in respect of pay transparency measures in Belgium, Denmark and Iceland. The second article, by Daniela Mihailova of the Equal Opportunities Initiative Association (Bulgaria), explores the situation of Roma and Traveller communities in Bulgaria, Ireland and Slovakia in relation to healthcare. The final article, by Karolina Kędziora, President of the Polish Society of Anti-Discrimination Law, and independent expert Maciej Kułak, is a comparative analysis of the evaluations of national non-discrimination law that have been commissioned and/or undertaken by national authorities in recent years in Austria, Belgium, Poland and Sweden.

To receive hard copies of the European equality law review and be added to our mailing list to automatically receive future issues, please visit our order page

Issue No. 13 - December 2011

Publication date: 17 December 2011. Topics

Issue No. 2 - November 2011

Publication date: 1 November 2011. Topics

Issue No. 12 - July 2011

Publication date: 29 July 2011. Topics

Issue No. 1 - May 2011

Publication date: 1 May 2011. Topics

Issue No. 11 - December 2010

Publication date: 14 February 2011. Topics

Issue No. 2 - December 2010

Publication date: 22 December 2010. Topics

Issue No. 10 - July 2010

Publication date: 11 July 2010. Topics

Issue No. 1 - June 2010

Publication date: 1 June 2010. Topics

Issue No. 9 - December 2009

Publication date: 11 December 2009. Topics

Issue No. 2 - December 2009

Publication date: 1 November 2009. Topics

Issue No. 8 - July 2009

Publication date: 11 July 2009. Topics

Issue No. 1 - June 2009

Publication date: 1 June 2009. Topics

Issue No. 2 - November 2008

Publication date: 1 November 2008. Topics

Issue No. 6/7 - October 2008

Publication date: 11 October 2008. Topics

Issue No.1 - August 2008

Publication date: 1 August 2008. Topics

Publications

Law reviews

This second issue of the 2021 European Equality Law Review provides an overview of legal and policy developments in the field of gender equality and non-discrimination across Europe from 1 January to 30 June 2021.

Most recent publication:

European equality law review No. 2 | 2021

Cover image of European equality law review

Published:
November 2021

Download this publication

More European equality law reviews

Thematic reports

The thematic reports published by the Network provide an in-depth analysis of a variety of themes in the non-discrimination and/or gender equality field. The thematic reports for 2021 are: Gender equality in goods and services, author Eugenia Caracciolo di Torella, Criminalisation of gender-based violence against women in European States, including ICT-facilitated violence, authors Sara De Vido and Lorena Sosa; How to improve the enforcement of the Racial Equality and the Employment Equality Directives? Effectively enforcing the right to non-discrimination. Promising practices implementing and going beyond the requirements of the Racial Equality and Employment Equality Directives, authors Romaniţa Iordache and Iustina Ionescu.

Most recent publication:

Directive 2004/113/EC on Gender Equality in Goods and Services – In search of the potential of a forgotten Directive

Cover image of Directive 2004/113/EC on Gender Equality in Goods and Services – In search of the potential of a forgotten Directive

Published:
March 2022

Eugenia Caracciolo di Torella

Download this publication

More thematic reports

Comparative analyses

Most recent publications:

A comparative analysis of non-discrimination law in Europe 2021

Cover image of A comparative analysis of non-discrimination law in Europe 2021

Published: February 2022

Download this publication

A comparative analysis of gender equality law in Europe 2021

Cover image of A comparative analysis of gender equality law in Europe 2021

Published: February 2022

Download this publication

More comparative analyses

Links

European Commission, DG Justice and Consumers
Tackling discrimination: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/index_en.htm
Gender equality: https://ec.europa.eu/info/policies/justice-and-fundamental-rights/gender-equality_en

European Court of Justice
http://curia.europa.eu

European Court of Human Rights
http://www.echr.coe.int/Pages/home.aspx?p=home

European Committee of Social Rights
http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/ecsr/ecsrdefault_EN.asp

Equinet - European network of equality bodies
If you consider that you have been a victim or a witness of an act of discrimination we would suggest that you contact the national equality body in your country of residence via the following link: https://equineteurope.org/members-map/ 

More information is available here: https://equineteurope.org/what-are-equality-bodies/european-directory-of-equality-bodies/

FRA - European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
http://fra.europa.eu/en


 

About us

The European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination, established in December 2014, combines two previously existing networks: the European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-discrimination Field and the European Network of Legal Experts in the field of Gender Equality.

The gender equality network has a long history. It started in 1983, focussing on the implementation at national level of the series of directives that have been adopted since 1975 on equal treatment between women and men and on the cases on sex discrimination decided by the Court of Justice. With its experienced experts the network assisted the Commission in its task to monitor the correct implementation of the gender equality acquis communautaire. In 1983, only 6 Member States were participating in this network, in contrast to the 36 countries that are now included in the network.

The network of legal experts on non-discrimination was established in 2004 with the main aim to provide the Commission with independent advice on all the grounds of discrimination covered by Directive 2000/43/EC and Directive 2000/78/EC. The network was a follow-up to three separate networks, one of which dealt with racial or ethnic origin and religion or belief, one with disability and one with sexual orientation.

After a period of increasingly closer cooperation during the years 2012 - 2014 the gender equality and the non-discrimination networks merged into the current network covering all discrimination grounds in the EU Treaties.

The network ensures a regular overview of state of affairs regarding the transposition of EU equality and non-discrimination law on a country by country basis in the annual country reports and comparative analyses, whereas more recent reporting can be found in the legal developments section of the website and the key developments section of the bi-annual European Equality Law Review. Topical issues are addressed in article in the Equality Law Review and thematic reports that are published on the website and presented and discussed during the annual legal seminar.

The overall operation of the network is governed by Human European Consultancy, the School of Law of Utrecht University and the Migration Policy Group.

General coordination - Human European Consultancy

Position Name Email
General Coordinator Jos Kösters
Project manager  Yvonne van Leeuwen-Lohde
Project management assistant Rebecca van Midden

Coordination gender equality - Utrecht University

Position Name Email
Specialist coordinator gender equality Linda Senden
Content coordinator for gender equality law Alexandra Timmer
Research editor gender equality law Franka van Hoof
Research editor gender equality law Birte Böök

Coordination non-discrimination - Migration Policy Group

Position Name Email
Specialist coordinator non-discrimination law Isabelle Chopin
Research editor non-discrimination law Catharina Germaine

Executive committee of senior experts

Position Name Email
Racial or ethnic origin Lilla Farkas
Age Elaine Dewhurst
Religion or belief Isabelle Rorive
Gender equality law Susanne Burri
Sexual orientation Peter Dunne
Disability Lisa Waddington
EU and human rights law Christopher McCrudden
Social security Frans Pennings
EU law and expertise on sex, gender identity and gender expression in relation to trans and intersex people Christa Tobler

 

Legal developments

Right of Local Bar to impose dress codes to lawyers limiting freedom of expression and freedom of religion

Extent of the obligation of reasonable accommodation of the employer in matters related to religious freedom

New bill on protection against age discrimination in recruitment

Publication date: 21 February 2022. Topics

Launch of National Action Plan against antisemitism. Decision to draw up a National Action Plan against Racism

The requirement of a physical height of at least 1.65m for female candidates opposed to 1.70m for male candidates for entry to the Port Police constitutes an indirect discrimination on the grounds of sex

Publication date: 21 February 2022. Topics

Wearing of a face mask as a requirement for obtaining goods and services

Decision from the Equality Tribunal concerning access to goods and services and ICT

The requirement of a physical height of at least 1.70m, whatever the sex of the candidates, for entry to the police school constitutes an indirect discrimination on the grounds of sex

Dismissal of a cleaner by a Municipality considered by Ombudsman as violation of the equal treatment legislation on the ground of age

Publication date: 15 February 2022. Topics

The adoption of the National Action Plan for LGBTI+ persons, 2021-2027

Permanent ban on blood donation by men who have had sex with men found to be discriminatory based on sexual orientation and gender

The Supreme Administrative Court decided that the airline’s duty for reasonable accommodation for a disabled person can extend to offering several seats for reduced price

Venice Commission expresses concerns regarding certain elements of merging the Equal Treatment Authority into the Ombudsman’s Office, including the legislative process, the merger’s impact on financial and human resources and its procedural consequences

Publication date: 14 February 2022. Topics

Maternity allowance as in force for female employees extended by analogy to female salaried lawyers retrospectively since 1 January 2017

Publication date: 1 February 2022. Topics

The adoption of the National Action Plan for equality, inclusion and the participation of Roma and Egyptian people for the period of 2021-2025

Islamic headscarf and limits of justified unequal treatment on the ground of religion

The introduction of the obligation to register pregnancy in the electronic Medical Information System by providers of health services raises concerns whether this tool will not be used to strengthen female reproductive control

Publication date: 1 February 2022. Topics

Discrimination on the ground of disability by legislative omission

The Administrative Court finds in favour of the respondent in a religious discrimination case in the field of marketing services

The Constitutional Court found that a unilateral decision to dismiss an employee who is eligible for old age pension is unconstitutional

Publication date: 18 January 2022. Topics

Equal treatment between female and male health insurance policyholders

Publication date: 18 January 2022. Topics

The Commissioner for Fundamental Rights found the complaint of a trans-identifying employee who had been denied access to the women’s bathroom partially justified

Publication date: 17 January 2022. Topics

Further consequences of restriction of reproductive rights

In the context of the alarming rise of domestic violence and femicides, the social outcry for ineffective management of complaints led to the adoption of new directives for police officers and prosecutors

Publication date: 12 January 2022. Topics

Whether inaction by the relevant Ministry to take measures against a systemic failure resulting in the overrepresentation of Roma children being removed from their families by child protection authorities amounts to discrimination

The Slovenian Equality Body hosted a fifth regional conference of equality bodies from South-East Europe

Religious discrimination in employment

This conflict is primarily of a legal nature, namely, the interpretation of Spanish Social Security legislation in relation to whether a person who has taken early retirement due to disability is entitled to a permanent Severe Disability Pension. The Constitutional Court has analysed if denying a claimant this option amounts to discrimination on grounds of disability

Violence against transgender women and girls; Compensation of gender-based violence

Requirement to use the word ‘psych’ on the vest of a service dog

Compensation awarded to a candidate for medical specialisation in gynaecology discriminated against due to conscientious objection

Public signing of the European Charter for Equality of Women and Men in Local Life by 16 Polish cities as a declaration of support for local government supporting equality between women and men in all areas of life

A column published by a weekly magazine was found to be discriminatory due to its white supremacism content

During the COVID-19 epidemic the authorities restricted exit from the country for 10 days, which was found discriminatory on the grounds of ethnic origin

Prolonged online learning during COVID epidemic lockdown discriminated against children, particularly vulnerable children

Whether denial by government agency to list an LGBTQI organisation among ‘family organisations’ can be regarded as a disadvantage in itself, and what comparator a complainant claiming discrimination based on sexual orientation must use to prove that it has suffered a disadvantage

Discrimination on the ground of religion in relation to the refusal to swear to the pledge provided by law on the ground of the Christian faith, of an employee of the public transport system

Home

Welcome!

In order to effectively promote equality and tackle discrimination in the European Union it is important to understand the effects of the EU's equal treatment and non-discrimination legislation.

The European Commission therefore set up the former network of legal experts in gender equality and the network on non-discrimination to support its work by providing independent information and advice on relevant developments in the Member States. The two networks were merged in December 2014 and are now jointly managed by Human European Consultancy, the Migration Policy Group (MPG) and Utrecht University (UU) on behalf of the European Commission.

A primary task of the European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination is to provide reliable, expert information to enable the Commission to fulfil their role as guardian of the treaties. The disclosure and gathering of information on gender equality and non-discrimination legislation, case law and developments at national level, that is often not easily accessible due to the specificities of national legal systems, language barriers and difficulties in finding relevant information, is therefore one of the key goals of the new network.

The dissemination of general information about the acquis (communautaire and national), the latest developments at the EU level and in the countries involved in the network, remains a vital issue both for the further implementation of gender equality and non-discrimination law and its further development. Only upon the basis of the disclosure of gender equality and non-discrimination problems persisting in the Member States and other countries involved in the network, will it be possible to develop sound policies and legal rules for remedying these.

On this website the network publishes information on developments in gender equality and non-discrimination law at the Member State and European level. More information can be found via our legal developments page and the individual country pages.

Go to the website of Human European Consultancy
Go to the website of Utrecht University
Go to the website of the Migration Policy Group

Order European equality law review

Click here to order publications