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European Equality Law Network

European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination

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Thematic reports

 

This thematic report focuses on Council Directive 2004/113/EC (the Directive or the Goods and Services Directive). The purpose of this Directive is ‘to lay down a framework for combating discrimination based on sex in access to goods and services, with a view to putting into effect in the Member States the principle of equal treatment between men and women’. The aim of this thematic report is twofold. First, to take stock of the Directive and its implementation in the Member States in order to highlight its achievements and shortcomings, as well as identifying the reasons for them. Secondly, to suggest measures that can (and should) be introduced in order to address these shortcomings. These suggestions aim not only to ensure that the Directive achieves its full potential, but also to expand its scope, in light of ongoing societal and technological developments, such as the development of the platform economy, and more generally the expansion of artificial intelligence. This report maintains that this approach would ensure that the Directive is well equipped to address the challenges of today’s society and ultimately to stand the test of time.

Publication date: 30 March 2022. Topics

This report aims to highlight encouraging and promising practices to protect against discrimination and ensure an effective implementation of the Equality Directives. Some of these practices may even go beyond the minimum requirements established in the directives. The report will look in particular at specific and innovative solutions to effectively enforce equality law throughout the 27 Member States and the three EFTA countries, including promising practices developed in relation to providing remedies against discrimination. The authors acknowledge the fact that some of the positive elements existed in national legislation prior to the adoption and transposition of the directives. Some of these examples were, however, included in the report, given their potential for inspiring and showing commitment to effectively undertaking equality and non-discrimination as a priority.

Publication date: 7 February 2022. Topics

This thematic report provides a comparative analysis of the criminal law provisions that are applied to gender-based violence, including domestic violence and online violence, in the EU-27, the three EEA countries and the United Kingdom. It explores whether gender-based violence is defined as a form of discrimination or a violation of the principle of equality. It identifies and defines ICT-facilitated violence and takes as examples two forms: non-consensual dissemination of intimate/private/sexual images, and hate speech based on gender. It also examines general aspects of enforcement and sanctioning that are particularly salient in the context of combating gender-based violence against women and domestic violence.

Publication date: 25 November 2021. Topics

Indirect discrimination recognises the potentially detrimental effect of measures that do not refer to protected characteristics but nevertheless disadvantage groups with certain characteristics. Accordingly, EU non-discrimination law goes beyond simply prohibiting the differential treatment directly based on the protected characteristics (or characteristics that are essentially linked to the protected characteristic such as pregnancy or different retirement ages) and invites an effects-based analysis. It recognises that formally equal treatment irrespectively of the protected characteristics, can have detrimental effects on disadvantaged groups within societies that are shaped by past discrimination, unequal opportunities and structural inequality (including specific employment features such as part-time work). Within the context of this report, we will analyse the scope and functioning of the concept of indirect sex discrimination with a focus on employment. Since EU non-discrimination law originated within the context of employment sex discrimination, this area of EU non-discrimination law is the most developed and national courts should have significant experience with indirect sex discrimination in employment. These developments are relevant for the entire application of the concept of indirect discrimination irrespective of protected ground.

Publication date: 18 March 2021. Topics

The rapid development and increasing use of artificial intelligence and algorithmic applications have raised many concerns relating to algorithms’ propensity to discriminate. Algorithmic discrimination can arise from various sources and at various stages of software design and it risks endangering one of the most fundamental rights guaranteed by EU law: the right to gender equality and non-discrimination. This thematic report identifies the main legal challenges arising from algorithmic discrimination at both national and EU level, covering the EU-27, the EEA countries and the United Kingdom. It assesses whether the current gender equality and non-discrimination legislative framework in place in the EU and at the national level adequately captures algorithmic discrimination. It maps out the gaps and weaknesses that arise from the interaction between the specific types of discrimination produced by algorithmic decision-making systems on the one hand and the particular material and personal scope of existing legislative frameworks on the other. This thematic report also examines which legal solutions, policy measures and good practices the EU and the national member states have adopted to address these gaps and weaknesses. In short, this thematic report investigates how the issue of algorithmic discrimination is framed, addressed and redressed in the EU, with a particular focus on gender equality.

Publication date: 18 March 2021. Topics

This thematic report analyses and compares age discrimination laws outside the labour market in the areas of social protection, healthcare, education, housing and access to and supply of goods and services in EU Member States and under the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR). It establishes how such laws (as exist in legislation and case law, or soft law) address age discrimination in these defined areas, identifies gaps in the existing legal protections across the EU Member States and provides recommendations on the most effective legal mechanisms for tackling age discrimination within the EU. The gender aspect is not dealt with in this report, but there is some reference to gender, for example reference to ECtHR case law or when literature refers to it. Regarding the gender aspect, the report refers the reader to the Advisory Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men ‘s Opinion on ‘Challenges for gender equality in a rapidly ageing society’.

Publication date: 24 November 2020. Topics

This report considers protections against sexual orientation discrimination in areas beyond the labour market, and explores whether (and to what extent) any such protections exist in the 27 EU Member States and the United Kingdom (UK). The report focuses on the spheres of social protection, education and access to and supply of goods and services. Taking these topics as a point of departure, the report asks whether domestic law prohibits – either through statute, administrative practice or judicial precedent – unequal treatment on the basis of sexual orientation. There is a particular emphasis on the case law of Member States’ and UK’s judiciaries, and consideration of whether judicial intervention (even in the absence of explicit statutory protections) has ensured equality protections on the basis of sexual orientation. The report identifies potential exceptions to equality obligations (e.g. religious exemptions), investigate the role of national equality bodies and explain how (if at all) discriminatory acts are remedied. Against a background of ongoing political debate, the report clarifies the extent to which EU countries and the UK acknowledge sexual orientation inequality in spheres outside employment and occupation. As such, the report highlights key legislative gaps, identifies examples of good practice and offer workable recommendations for reform.

Publication date: 23 November 2020. Topics

This report examines strategic litigation in the field of sex discrimination law. It consists of four parts:
The first part presents a conceptualization of strategic litigation. The second part will provide an overview of existing strategic litigation practices regarding sex discrimination at the national level. The third part will contain an examination of strategic litigation at the EU level. The fourth part will analyse different factors contributing to successful strategic litigation efforts.

Publication date: 6 May 2020. Topics

This report analyses national and international case law on racial discrimination in education (including segregation) with reference to the Racial Equality Directive and assess its practical impact in view of diverse forms of enforcement.
The first part of the report describes the multiple sources of EU equality law on racial discrimination in education. The second part summarises EU Member States’ national legal frameworks, canvassing the prohibition of discrimination (including harassment) in education, the scope of protection and the explicit/implicit prohibition of segregation. The third part analyses the case law of national courts, equality bodies and field specific enforcement agencies. The fourth part looks, against the backdrop of the transnational nature of European equality law, at legal enforcement as part of a holistic social change strategy.

Lilla Farkas and Dezideriu Gergely (2020)

 

Publication date: 8 April 2020. Topics

Since the adoption of the Racial Equality Directive (2000/43/EC) and the Employment Equality Directive (2000/78/EC) the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has handed down an ever-increasing number of judgments related to these Directives, clarifying many important aspects of their wording. An initial overview of the evolution of this case law, addressing key themes within its development, was written in 2012 by Colm O’Cinneide. This report provides an updated account of case law developments since that date, and also to trace the ongoing impact of the CJEU’s case law on national law. It takes stock of how the case law of the Court has developed since 2012. It also examines the impact of this case law on national law and critically analyses the evolution of the Court’s jurisprudence. The methodology used is qualitative, involving close analysis of the judgments of the Court, opinions of Advocate-Generals, academic commentary and decisions of national courts in Member States.
Kimberly Liu and Colm O’Cinneide (November 2019)

Publication date: 4 December 2019. Topics

This report considers the use of ‘positive action’ in employment as a key mechanism to advance women’s equality, and to ensure gender-balanced company boards. ‘Positive action’ involves the use of measures that are taken by government or other actors to enable or encourage members of ‘protected groups’ (such as women) to overcome or at least reduce current or past disadvantages (including discrimination), or to meet the needs of the protected group that differ from other groups, or to enable or encourage persons in the protected groups to participate in a particular activity where they might otherwise be under-represented. The report identifies the current legal and regulatory frameworks and scope of positive action in European Union law and policy, and in the 28 European Union (EU) Member States (including the United Kingdom), and the 3 members of the European Economic Area (EEA, comprising Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway). The report aims to lay bare where tensions and gaps may arise in the applicable legal framework between different levels of legal authority, but in particular between the EU law and national approaches to positive action. Addressing this second issue involves a reflection on whether there are possible inconsistencies or shortcomings in the current EU legal treatment of positive action (including the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union. In light of this analysis, the report makes recommendations for possible European Union action, including suggestions for actions that may be included in any forthcoming EU gender strategy.

Christopher McCrudden (October 2019)

Publication date: 4 December 2019. Topics

Susanne Burri (2019)

Publication date: 6 November 2019. Topics

Susanne Burri (November 2018)

Publication date: 18 December 2018. Topics

Naill Crowley (August 2018)

Publication date: 10 December 2018. Topics

Marjolein van den Brink and Peter Dunne (November 2018)

Publication date: 20 November 2018. Topics

Eugenia Caracciolo di Torella and Bridgette McLellan (March 2018)

Publication date: 7 March 2018. Topics

Linda Senden and Sonja Kruisinga (January 2018)

Publication date: 30 January 2018. Topics

Erica Howard (November 2017)

Publication date: 11 December 2017. Topics

Isabelle Chopin, Catharina Germaine and Judit Tanczos (November 2017)

Publication date: 8 November 2017. Topics

Albertine Veldman (April 2017)

Publication date: 28 April 2017. Topics

Comparative analyses

The comparative analyses provide a summary of the state of affairs of non-discrimination and gender equality law in the 27 EU Member States, Albania, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Turkey and United Kingdom. The analyses give an overview of the key issues, include the latest and most important legal developments at the national level such as case law and legislative amendments, and illustrate and assess the evolution of non-discrimination and gender equality law.  

A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU gender equality law in the EU Member States, Albania, North Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, Turkey and United Kingdom

Publication date: 15 February 2022. Topics

The 27 EU Member States, Albania, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Turkey and the United Kingdom compared

Publication date: 2 February 2022. Topics

A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU gender equality law in the EU Member States, Albania, North Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, Turkey and United Kingdom

Publication date: 25 May 2021. Topics

The 27 EU Member States, Albania, North Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, Turkey and the United Kingdom compared

Publication date: 22 February 2021. Topics

A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU gender equality law in the EU Member States, Albania, North Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey

Publication date: 4 May 2020. Topics

The 28 EU Member States, Albania North Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey compared

Publication date: 6 April 2020. Topics

Aperçu des règles de l’UE et de leur transposition en droit national en 2018.

Publication date: 11 March 2019. Topics

Wie sind die Unionsvorschriften 2018 im nationalen Recht umgesetzt?

Publication date: 11 March 2019. Topics

A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU gender equality law in the EU Member States, the Republic of North Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey

Publication date: 27 February 2019. Topics

How are EU rules transposed into national law in 2018? 

Publication date: 27 February 2019. Topics

The 28 EU Member States, the Republic of North Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey compared

Publication date: 16 January 2019. Topics

A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU gender equality law in the EU Member States, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey

Publication date: 23 February 2018. Topics

How are EU rules transposed into national law in 2017? 

Publication date: 23 February 2018. Topics

Aperçu des règles de l’UE et de leur transposition en droit national en 2017.

Publication date: 23 February 2018. Topics

Wie sind die Unionsvorschriften 2017 im nationalen Recht umgesetzt? 

Publication date: 23 February 2018. Topics

A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU non-discrimination law in the 28 EU Member States, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey compared

Publication date: 6 December 2017. Topics

A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU non-discrimination law in the EU Member States, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey

Publication date: 12 January 2017. Topics

A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU gender equality law in the EU Member States, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey

Publication date: 14 December 2016. Topics

How are EU rules transposed into national law in 2016? 

Publication date: 14 December 2016. Topics

Aperçu des règles de l’UE et de leur transposition en droit national en 2016.

Publication date: 14 December 2016. Topics

Wie sind die Unionsvorschriften 2016 im nationalen Recht umgesetzt? 

Publication date: 14 December 2016. Topics

A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU non-discrimination law in the EU Member States, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey

Publication date: 24 May 2016. Topics

A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU gender equality law in the EU Member States, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey

Publication date: 24 May 2016. Topics

How are EU rules transposed into national law in 2015?

Publication date: 14 December 2015. Topics

Aperçu des règles de l’UE et de leur transposition en droit national en 2015

Publication date: 14 December 2015. Topics

Law reviews

This second issue of the 2021 European Equality Law Review provides an overview of legal and policy developments in the field of gender equality and non-discrimination across Europe from 1 January to 30 June 2021.

This issue opens with three in-depth articles. The first article, by Sara Benedí Lahuerta from University College Dublin, is a comparative analysis of best practices and challenges in respect of pay transparency measures in Belgium, Denmark and Iceland. The second article, by Daniela Mihailova of the Equal Opportunities Initiative Association (Bulgaria), explores the situation of Roma and Traveller communities in Bulgaria, Ireland and Slovakia in relation to healthcare. The final article, by Karolina Kędziora, President of the Polish Society of Anti-Discrimination Law, and independent expert Maciej Kułak, is a comparative analysis of the evaluations of national non-discrimination law that have been commissioned and/or undertaken by national authorities in recent years in Austria, Belgium, Poland and Sweden.

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Issue No. 2 - 2021

Publication date: 25 November 2021. Topics

Issue No. 1 - 2021

Publication date: 2 August 2021. Topics

Issue No. 2 - 2020

Publication date: 23 November 2020. Topics

Issue No. 1 - 2020

Publication date: 28 July 2020. Topics

Issue No. 2 - 2019

Publication date: 12 November 2019. Topics

Issue No. 1 - 2019

Publication date: 18 July 2019. Topics

Issue No. 2 – 2018

Publication date: 4 December 2018. Topics

Issue No. 1 – 2018

Publication date: 10 July 2018. Topics

Issue No. 2 – 2017

Publication date: 4 December 2017. Topics

Issue No. 1 – 2017

Publication date: 18 July 2017. Topics

Issue No. 2 – 2016

Publication date: 22 November 2016. Topics

Issue No. 1 – 2016

Publication date: 17 August 2016. Topics

Issue No. 2 - 2015

Publication date: 9 November 2015. Topics

Issue No. 1 – 2015

Publication date: 13 October 2015. Topics

Issue No. 19 - November 2014

Publication date: 3 November 2014. Topics

Issue No. 18 - July 2014

Publication date: 20 July 2014. Topics

Issue No. 1 - June 2014

Publication date: 1 June 2014. Topics

Issue No. 2 - January 2014

Publication date: 1 January 2014. Topics

Issue No. 17 - November 2013

Publication date: 27 November 2013. Topics

Issue No. 16 - July 2013

Publication date: 19 July 2013. Topics

Issue No. 1 - June 2013

Publication date: 1 June 2013. Topics

Issue No. 15 - November 2012

Publication date: 25 November 2012. Topics

Issue No. 2 - November 2012

Publication date: 1 November 2012. Topics

Issue No. 14 - June 2012

Publication date: 9 June 2012. Topics

Issue No. 1 - June 2012

Publication date: 1 June 2012. Topics

Publications

Law reviews

This second issue of the 2021 European Equality Law Review provides an overview of legal and policy developments in the field of gender equality and non-discrimination across Europe from 1 January to 30 June 2021.

Most recent publication:

European equality law review No. 2 | 2021

Cover image of European equality law review

Published:
November 2021

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More European equality law reviews

Thematic reports

The thematic reports published by the Network provide an in-depth analysis of a variety of themes in the non-discrimination and/or gender equality field. The thematic reports for 2021 are: Gender equality in goods and services, author Eugenia Caracciolo di Torella, Criminalisation of gender-based violence against women in European States, including ICT-facilitated violence, authors Sara De Vido and Lorena Sosa; How to improve the enforcement of the Racial Equality and the Employment Equality Directives? Effectively enforcing the right to non-discrimination. Promising practices implementing and going beyond the requirements of the Racial Equality and Employment Equality Directives, authors Romaniţa Iordache and Iustina Ionescu.

Most recent publication:

Directive 2004/113/EC on Gender Equality in Goods and Services – In search of the potential of a forgotten Directive

Cover image of Directive 2004/113/EC on Gender Equality in Goods and Services – In search of the potential of a forgotten Directive

Published:
March 2022

Eugenia Caracciolo di Torella

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More thematic reports

Comparative analyses

Most recent publications:

A comparative analysis of non-discrimination law in Europe 2021

Cover image of A comparative analysis of non-discrimination law in Europe 2021

Published: February 2022

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A comparative analysis of gender equality law in Europe 2021

Cover image of A comparative analysis of gender equality law in Europe 2021

Published: February 2022

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More comparative analyses

Links

European Commission, DG Justice and Consumers
Tackling discrimination: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/index_en.htm
Gender equality: https://ec.europa.eu/info/policies/justice-and-fundamental-rights/gender-equality_en

European Court of Justice
http://curia.europa.eu

European Court of Human Rights
http://www.echr.coe.int/Pages/home.aspx?p=home

European Committee of Social Rights
http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/ecsr/ecsrdefault_EN.asp

Equinet - European network of equality bodies
If you consider that you have been a victim or a witness of an act of discrimination we would suggest that you contact the national equality body in your country of residence via the following link: https://equineteurope.org/members-map/ 

More information is available here: https://equineteurope.org/what-are-equality-bodies/european-directory-of-equality-bodies/

FRA - European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
http://fra.europa.eu/en


 

About us

The European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination, established in December 2014, combines two previously existing networks: the European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-discrimination Field and the European Network of Legal Experts in the field of Gender Equality.

The gender equality network has a long history. It started in 1983, focussing on the implementation at national level of the series of directives that have been adopted since 1975 on equal treatment between women and men and on the cases on sex discrimination decided by the Court of Justice. With its experienced experts the network assisted the Commission in its task to monitor the correct implementation of the gender equality acquis communautaire. In 1983, only 6 Member States were participating in this network, in contrast to the 36 countries that are now included in the network.

The network of legal experts on non-discrimination was established in 2004 with the main aim to provide the Commission with independent advice on all the grounds of discrimination covered by Directive 2000/43/EC and Directive 2000/78/EC. The network was a follow-up to three separate networks, one of which dealt with racial or ethnic origin and religion or belief, one with disability and one with sexual orientation.

After a period of increasingly closer cooperation during the years 2012 - 2014 the gender equality and the non-discrimination networks merged into the current network covering all discrimination grounds in the EU Treaties.

The network ensures a regular overview of state of affairs regarding the transposition of EU equality and non-discrimination law on a country by country basis in the annual country reports and comparative analyses, whereas more recent reporting can be found in the legal developments section of the website and the key developments section of the bi-annual European Equality Law Review. Topical issues are addressed in article in the Equality Law Review and thematic reports that are published on the website and presented and discussed during the annual legal seminar.

The overall operation of the network is governed by Human European Consultancy, the School of Law of Utrecht University and the Migration Policy Group.

General coordination - Human European Consultancy

Position Name Email
General Coordinator Jos Kösters
Project manager  Magdalena Maier
Project management assistant Rebecca van Midden

Coordination gender equality - Utrecht University

Position Name Email
Specialist coordinator gender equality Linda Senden
Content coordinator for gender equality law Alexandra Timmer
Research editor gender equality law Franka van Hoof
Research editor gender equality law Birte Böök

Coordination non-discrimination - Migration Policy Group

Position Name Email
Specialist coordinator non-discrimination law Isabelle Chopin
Research editor non-discrimination law Catharina Germaine

Executive committee of senior experts

Position Name Email
Racial or ethnic origin Lilla Farkas
Age Elaine Dewhurst
Religion or belief Isabelle Rorive
Gender equality law Susanne Burri
Sexual orientation Peter Dunne
Disability Lisa Waddington
EU and human rights law Christopher McCrudden
Social security Frans Pennings
EU law and expertise on sex, gender identity and gender expression in relation to trans and intersex people Christa Tobler

 

Legal developments

Committee of State and National Coordinator against Discrimination and Racism

Whether broadcasting a public-interest commercial regarding rainbow families in the 05.00-21.00 o’clock time slot can be banned on the basis of ‘child-protection’ arguments

Publication date: 23 August 2022. Topics

Public annual report on the activity of the Defender of Rights for the year 2021

The Global Alliance of National Human Rights Institutions voices serious criticism regarding the independence of Hungary’s equality body, the Ombudsman, and downgrades it due to the lack of functional independence

Evaluation of the Federal anti-discrimination legislation by a Commission of Independent experts

Eastern High Court rules that differential treatment based on the legal criterion ‘immigrant or descendant from non-Western countries’ does not constitute discrimination based on ‘ethnic origin’

First instance conviction of members of a Nazi group (Hammerskins) for racial, sexual orientation and religious discrimination

A new ground of discrimination, discrimination of persons with disabilities in the workplace, social advantages on the grounds of age, disability, and social status

Broader employment opportunities and services for persons with disabilities in the labour market, as well as abolition of the status of social enterprises

Publication date: 22 August 2022. Topics

Appointment of new Federal Commissioner for Anti-Discrimination/Head of the Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency

Are gender-critical beliefs protected under the Equality Act 2010?

Analysis of different key issues in the implementation of Belgian anti-discrimination legislation during the year 2021, and description of UNIA's (Inter-federal Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism and Discrimination) action over the past year

Muslim women's right not to be discriminated against in the workplace during vocational training in combination with the protection of public health

A labour court in the city of Bilbao has ruled that the Administration’s failure to take measures to adapt the workplace of a teacher with a physical disability is indirect discrimination on grounds of disability

Publication date: 25 July 2022. Topics

Conformity of a by-law adopted by the City of Grenoble authorising women to wear a loose and long bathing garment in municipal swimming pools to accommodate religious demands, to the principle of neutrality of the public service and secularity

Are gender critical beliefs protected under the Equality Act 2010?

National study on the needs of LGBTI people and on discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity and expression and sexual characteristics

Conciliation measures and promotion of gender equality for working mothers

Conversion therapies prohibited only against LGBTQ+ minors and persons under judicial support whereas still allowed against LGBTQ+ adults on the basis of prior explicit consent

Spain ratifies ILO Convention No 189 concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers

Paternity leave, parental leave for both employees and self-employed, time off for caregiver, smart working as a conciliation measure

Wage system based on age was seen as discriminatory – and the tribunal’s authority to award compensation for economic losses is clarified by all the heads of tribunal chambers

Publication date: 15 June 2022. Topics

Report on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women and men and consequences on gender equality

Ministry of Justice’s working group proposal to strengthen access to justice in the Non Discrimination Act published

When the burden of proof was transposed into Norwegian law, its content and application were not thoroughly assessed in the preparatory works. This has led to a systematic misinterpretation of it for decades

Annual report of the national equality body for 2021

Registration as a non-binary person

First baseline evaluation report on implementation of the Istanbul Convention submitted by the Government, along with shadow reports by several women NGOs

The application of constitutional reform on gender quotas in Parliament leading to a gender corrective mechanism

Publication date: 1 June 2022. Topics

Annual reports providing statistics on discrimination cases reported and findings of discrimination

An administrative fine of EUR 50 000 imposed by the National Council for Radio and Television to a TV channel for gender discrimination and stereotyping

Publication date: 4 May 2022. Topics

The Council of State found requirements for the grant of a right to parental leave for newly appointed schoolteachers to be in breach of Directive’s 2010/18/EU prohibition of length of service qualifications exceeding the one year limit

New provisions of the Penal Code on rape, sexual harassment, human trafficking and sexual exploitation of the prostitution of others

The High Court of Justice of Andalusia has found that the failure of a company to reduce the salary of a worker close to the age of retirement does not constitute discrimination on grounds of age

Publication date: 26 April 2022. Topics

Extension of the scope of protection against discrimination in the field of supply of and access to goods and services

Home

Welcome!

In order to effectively promote equality and tackle discrimination in the European Union it is important to understand the effects of the EU's equal treatment and non-discrimination legislation.

The European Commission therefore set up the former network of legal experts in gender equality and the network on non-discrimination to support its work by providing independent information and advice on relevant developments in the Member States. The two networks were merged in December 2014 and are now jointly managed by Human European Consultancy, the Migration Policy Group (MPG) and Utrecht University (UU) on behalf of the European Commission.

A primary task of the European network of legal experts in gender equality and non-discrimination is to provide reliable, expert information to enable the Commission to fulfil their role as guardian of the treaties. The disclosure and gathering of information on gender equality and non-discrimination legislation, case law and developments at national level, that is often not easily accessible due to the specificities of national legal systems, language barriers and difficulties in finding relevant information, is therefore one of the key goals of the new network.

The dissemination of general information about the acquis (communautaire and national), the latest developments at the EU level and in the countries involved in the network, remains a vital issue both for the further implementation of gender equality and non-discrimination law and its further development. Only upon the basis of the disclosure of gender equality and non-discrimination problems persisting in the Member States and other countries involved in the network, will it be possible to develop sound policies and legal rules for remedying these.

On this website the network publishes information on developments in gender equality and non-discrimination law at the Member State and European level. More information can be found via our legal developments page and the individual country pages.

Go to the website of Human European Consultancy
Go to the website of Utrecht University
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